You are searching about Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced, today we will share with you article about Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced was compiled and edited by our team from many sources on the internet. Hope this article on the topic Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced is useful to you.
What is EDI?
Have you heard someone mention EDI (Electronic Data Interchange) or eCommerce
and wondered what it was? Simply put, eCommerce is the exchange of information
about trading goods, services, or money from computer to computer. For example,
the purchase of a widget over the internet, paying a bill, tracking an overnight
package delivery, or receiving a paycheck electronically.
Now imagine you’re a company. You want to do the same transactions, but
thousands of time a day. That is where EDI steps in. EDI is an agreed upon
message standard that exchanges information from one computer application to
another with the minimum of human intervention. And 95% of all eCommerce uses
EDI to exchange that information. It can be done with special software via e-mail,
across the Internet, or by customized connections. And it goes beyond just
purchasing goods and submitting invoices. A company can request information
about inventory levels in it’s suppliers’ and customers’ warehouses, receive an order
status; and send funds electronically along with automatic notification that an
invoice was paid. These are just a few of the many types of automated transactions
EDI is not something new. As a matter of fact, it is much older than you might
think. Yet to some industries it is only a few years old. And the health industry of
the United States had to be mandated by the Federal government before they dared
venture into EDI.
Who uses EDI? And how and where did it all start? What are the benefits? What are
the costs? What are the legalities? And why, with all the apparent advantages, do
some industries balk at switching to EDI? Well let’s start at the beginning to see
how it all came about.
Who uses EDI?
About 90% of the fortune 1000 companies currently use EDI. Companies such as
American Airlines, BMW, Coca-Cola, Dunkin Donuts, Eastman Kodak, Federal
Express, Gordmans, Heinz, InFocus, JCPenney, Kohls, Lowes, Macys, Nike,
Openheimer, Prudential Insurance, Queens City Government, Radio Shack, Staples,
Texaco, United Airlines, Verizon, Wachovia, and Yokohama Tires to name but a few.
EDI is widely used in manufacturing, shipping, warehousing, utilities,
pharmaceuticals, construction, petroleum, metals, food processing, banking,
insurance, retailing, government, health care, and textiles among other industries.
Any company that buys or sells goods or services can potentially use EDI. Because it
supports the entire business cycle, EDI can streamline the relationship that any
company has with its customers, distributors, suppliers, and so forth. According to
a recent study, the number of companies using EDI is projected to quadruple within
the next six years.
History of EDI
The first recorded EDI dates back to the 1850s when the railroads and Western
Union used the telegraph to communicate business information. Starting there,
Samuel Morse’s patented code was the single method used to communicate across
In 1948 during the Berlin Airlift, thousands of tons of food and consumables were
needed to be air freighted. The task of coordinating these consignments (which
arrived with differing manifests, languages and numbers of copies) was addressed
by devising a standard manifest.
In the late 1950’s and early 1960’s the rise of computer enabled companies to store
and process data electronically, companies needed an expedient method to
communicate the data. This method was realized by the widespread use of
computer telecommunications. Using telecommunications, companies could
transmit data electronically over telephone lines, and have the data input directly
into a trading partner’s business application. These electronic interchanges
improved response time, reduced paperwork, and eliminated the potential for
transcription errors. Computer telecommunications, however, only solved part of
Early electronic interchanges were based on proprietary formats agreed between two
trading partners. Due to differing document formats, it was difficult for a company
to exchange data electronically with many trading partners. What was needed was a
standard format for the data being exchanged. In 1968 the United States
Transportation Data Coordinating Committee (TDCC) was formed, to coordinate the
development of translation rules among four existing sets of industry-specific
In the mid 1970’s, it was clear that the TDCC standards were not enough, and work
began for national EDI standards. The Electronic Data Interchange Association
(EDIA), a non-profit organization set out to serve as an administrator for several
different industry groups. Each industry served has a committee to determine new
standards, modify existing ones, and pass the information on to the EDIA for
publication and distribution. EDIA was asked to develop a set of standards
applicable to the grocery industry. The first such standard is The Uniform
Communication Standard (UCS) which was applied to an actual transaction by the
Quaker Oats Company in 1981.
In 1979 the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Accredited Standards
Committee (ASC) was formed. It included representatives from transportation,
government & computer manufacturer industries, The committee’s first meeting
took place in Rosslyn, Virginia with the goal to create a set of standard data formats
based on the TDCC structure that:
– were hardware independent;
– were unambiguous, such that they could be used by all trading partners;
– reduced the labor-intensive tasks of exchanging data (e.g., data re-entry);
– allowed the sender of the data to control the exchange, including knowing if and
when the recipient received the transaction.
In 1982, Version 1 of the ANSI ASC certified release of draft X.12 standards was
At about the same time, the U.K. Department of Customs and Excise, with the
assistance of SITPRO (the British Simplification of Trade Procedures Board), was
developing its own standards for documents used in international trade, called
Tradacoms. These were later extended by the United Nations Economic Commission
for Europe (UNECE) into what became known as the GTDI (General-purpose Trade
Data Interchange standards), and were gradually accepted by some 2,000 British
Problems created by the trans-Atlantic use of two different (and largely
incompatible) sets of standardized documents have been addressed by the
formation of a United Nations Joint European and North American working party
(UN-JEDI), which began the development of the Electronic Data Interchange for
Administration, Commerce and Transport (EDIFACT) document translation
Early on, Value Added Networks (VANs) served as an “electronic post office” for
buyers and suppliers that needed to exchange data. For example, Company A could
send an electronic purchase order to the VAN and Company B could go to the VAN
to pick it up. If Company B claimed it did not receive the purchase order, the VAN
would serve as a third-party intermediary and would validate whether the purchase
order had in fact been picked up or not. That is the type of “value-add” these
Despite the benefits, VAN EDI had limited adoption because it was cost-prohibitive
for most companies to deploy. Before Internet EDI became available, approximately
80% of the suppliers in any given supply chain were communicating with their
customers manually via fax, telephone and snail mail because they could not afford
the investment required for VAN EDI. This resulted in inefficiencies throughout the
supply chain including: lost or mis-keyed purchase orders, late invoices, out-of-
With the advent of secure Internet EDI, companies of every size are now able to
transact electronically with their trading partners. And VAN services such as
“Message Disposition Notifications” (MDNs) are built right into the software
Benefits of EDI
Consider a very simple non-EDI-based purchase: A buyer decides he needs 365
widgets. He creates a purchase order, prints it out and pops it in the mail. When
the supplier gets the order, she types it into her company’s computer system. The
inventory guy pulls the order and ships out the widgets. Next, the supplier prints
out and mails an invoice. It’s not hard to imagine that this process could take
several days. EDI has the potential to cut massive amounts of time out of the
process. Sending documents, such as purchase orders or invoices, electronically
takes minutes, not days, and shipments can often go out the day the order comes
Moreover, the electronic format does not need to be re-keyed upon arrival. And
that is the part of the biggest benefit of EDI. This saves a tremendous amount of
labor time, and means that no data entry errors are introduced into your system by
your staff. Cycle times are reduced, and data entry backlogs are almost completely
eliminated. This allows for very quick order processing. A proper system can easily
handle receiving an order and shipping that order with its invoice the same day.
Studies indicate that the average reduction in turn around time is about 40% for
most business functions like order fulfillment, procurement, manufacturing,
logistics and finance.
This often allows a company that first implements EDI to handle far greater volumes
without adding personnel and other costs. This means increased sales and
increased revenues once the initial investment in EDI is recaptured.
These savings come from:
o No data entry errors from your operators
o No mail time
o Reduced labor processing costs and time
o Reduced lead times
o Reduced order cycle time
o Reduced inventory carrying costs
o No filing and other processing of paperwork
EDI improves margins by meeting customer demands and consequently
strengthening relationships. It also allows time and effort to be focused on other
Studies have shown that processing a purchase order or invoice costs most
companies about $5 in paper, postage, handling, direct labor and other such odds
and ends of direct costs. With EDI this can be reduced to about 50 cents;
sometimes as little as 13 cents, depending on how the EDI document is transmitted.
If your direct handling costs are greater, the savings is greater.
Another benefit is the implementation of Just-In-Time (JIT) order process
methodology. With Just-in-Time, a company can avoid stock-outs and/or obsolete
inventories, reduce lead times on ordering from suppliers and reduce inventory
carrying costs. Whether implementing a subset or the whole of JIT process
methodology, EDI is what makes Just-In-Time possible and allows it to be feasible.
With the proper agreements between trading partners, a manufacturer can
determine the current sales of their buyers and their buyers’ current inventory
levels. Therefore the manufacturer can forecast probable future sales and plan
production and their own purchasing accordingly. Obviously there will occasionally
be wild fluctuations that will disturb this scenario, but it does help the manufacturer
to accurately plan production, and the purchaser to know that their needs will more
likely be met by their suppliers.
Just-In-Time helps the manufacturer communicate quickly and inexpensively with
their suppliers, who may be using the same forecasting to meet the requirements of
Disadvantages of EDI
The biggest disadvantage implementing EDI is it reveals inefficient business
practices. If a company’s business process was inefficient before EDI, they will be
multiply with the implementation of EDI. The original purpose of EDI was to save
money and time. When used improperly, EDI does neither, and actually wastes both.
Costs of EDI
Prices for EDI applications vary from free (for very simple one-function products) to
several thousands of dollars for full-function applications. The final price you pay
depends upon several things:
The Expected Volume of Electronic Documents. Generally speaking,
low cost EDI packages handle only a few documents and trading partners. Midrange
EDI packages can be a little more expensive, but handle a much larger volume of
EDI. If you anticipate multiple documents or trading partners, a midrange EDI
system is a much better choice.
The Amplitude of the EDI Translation Software. Some products look
like a bargain, but as your EDI needs grow, hidden costs (such as having to
purchase new transaction sets) suddenly appear. You may pay more for a program
with an integrated mapper, but you’ll avoid purchasing overlays and maps in the
Implementation Time. Some applications are easier to learn and use
than others. But as above, the easier to lean the less the software package can
handle. The more time you spend in training, the more time it takes to get into
production mode. If your time frame is tight, and you are sure the documents you
will be using are static, look for a translator that doesn’t require training before
Fees vary from Software Company to Software Company. Ignoring
the hidden costs mentioned above, you can expect the following ongoing charges:
Maintenance Fees. Most companies charge an annual maintenance
fee that is usually a percentage of the translator’s list price. This fee should include
software updates, standards updates, technical support, and customer service.
VAN Charges. If you use a Value Added Network (VAN), you will be
billed for transmitting data similar to making a long distance phone call. Some also
bill you for connect time. A fast modem helps to lower transmission costs.
Mailbox Fee. Most VANs charge a monthly fee for maintaining a
mailbox on their network. Some base billing on the document (25 cents per
document transmitted). Others charge based upon the number of characters in each
EDI can at times take much longer than expected. Remember, you are working with
another company and you have no control over their priorities or business practices.
Your priority may be to implement a Purchase Order (850) with Wal-mart, but their
priority may be implementing the Advance Ship Notice (856). You need to
implement a Remittance Advice (820) with Wachovia yet their Remittance Advice
specialist is on Maternity leave and her replacement only knows Lockbox (823).
Despite its few disadvantages, EDI has proven to be a powerful backbone that supports today’s Electronic Commerce. Companies all over the world utilize EDI’s
versatility and flexibility to communicate with each other. And with the promise of
the Web, which offers much lower connectivity costs, and the lower costs of PCs and
simpler software, EDI is opening its doors to smaller companies. Moreover, XML, an
open standard for sharing data, is starting to appear as a method of EDI coding
standards, which could provide technical clarity across industries and nations
around the world.
Video about Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced
You can see more content about Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced on our youtube channel: Click Here
Question about Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced
If you have any questions about Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced, please let us know, all your questions or suggestions will help us improve in the following articles!
The article Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced was compiled by me and my team from many sources. If you find the article Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced helpful to you, please support the team Like or Share!
Rate Articles Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced
Rate: 4-5 stars
Search keywords Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced
Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced
way Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced
tutorial Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced
Suppose That In Problem 13 The Stock-Out Cost Is Replaced free